## Step 4: Draw Inferences Beyond the Data

The * descriptive analysis* you did forStep 3 in the Statistical Investigation Method discusses what we have learned about the students who participated in the study. But what does it
tell us about the underlying identification process that such students use?

### Thought Questions (Think about briefly, discuss with a partner and move on)

- What are two possible explanations for why a majority of students in class put the name Tim on the left?
- Consider the "random chance alone" explanation. Is it
*possible*this many students in your class would name the left picture Tim if each student is just randomly blindly (equally 50/50) assigning a name? - Again, consider the "random chance alone" explanation. Do you think it is
*probable*this many students in your class would name the left picture Tim if each student is just randomly (equally 50/50) choosing the name? - We need to quantify how probable the study results are for this chance model. Explain how we could use coin tossing to model what "could have happened" if each student in class was just randomly (equally 50/50) choosing a name for the first picture. That is, explain how coin tossing could be used to simulate outcomes for the study under the assumption that each student is randomly (equally 50/50) choosing a name for the picture on the left.