## Step 1: Ask a research question

(a) State the research question of interest in this study. In your description, identify the observational units, the explanatory variable, and the response variable.

(b) Write out the hypotheses corresponding to this research question:

- Write the appropriate null and alternative hypotheses (in words) using the language of association between the explanatory and response variables
- Express the null hypothesis in symbols. (
*Hint*: Remember that hypotheses are always about parameters, so define and use appropriate symbols for parameters first.)